Minyeva particles and affixes Organized

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v0.1.1 – 10/28/06
verbal affixes
doer of X (person) (v>n.d) – ga
doer of X (non-person) (v>n.d) – gle
person who causes change to state X (v>n.d) – vu
non-person who causes change to state X (v>n.d) – jle
(patient of action X) (v>n.d) – ji
(patient with result state X) (v>n.d) – tao
(focus of X) (v>n.d) – cu
(indirect object of X) (v>nd.) – toi
(active participle of X, subject) – yo
(active participle of X, causing change to state X) – ve
(focus participle of X) – coi
(patient of X participle) – jao
discrete action of X, X-tion, event of (eg. ‘a kick’ (v>n.d) – ti
X-ing (gerund), the activity (v>n.m), X-ness (adjectives), state of being X – ze
(abstract concept of) – swi
X-worthy, worthy of being the focus of X (v>adj) – cyo 
X-able, possible to be the focus of X (v>adj) – slo
X-able, possible to become or do X (v>adj) – gwi
X-able, possible to be the patient of X (v>adj) – joi 
likely to X, X-ing (eg forgiving) (v>adj) – twe  

(passive: promote patient, demote agent) – voi
(passive: promote focus, demote agent) – sti
(elide focus/patient) – je
(verb has no non-required dependents) – gai
make self ~, “i bi” –
oneself, “u bi” – ge
(habitual activity) – fle
(iterative) – ma
(perfective) – ko
(professional activity) – flai
(imperfective aspect), -ing – vla
have X (perfect) – pya
used to X, previously – qu
change from X – pa
change to, obtain quality, -ify, become – to
more (self-change, intensity), X-en – fyo
less (self-change, intensity), de-X-en – zai
go back from X, undo X – ke
go back to X, redo X – nu
keep doing X, stay X – dji
pause X, momentarily stop X – mai
discontinue/cancel/cease to X – moi
X-ed (past tense) – gwa
now (present tense) – swe
will (future tense) – twi
recently/soon (near in time) – gre
long ago/in a long time (far in time) – pra
accidentally – cpe
(attempt) (eg, bite at) – dwa
(subjunctive, hypothetical) – ce
nounal affixes
(discrete noun -> mass noun) (n.d>n.m) – qa
(mass noun -> discrete noun) (n.m>n.d) – twa
(action associated with X) (n>v) – gu
X as a group – tcai
X-ess (female) – nyo
(male) – vle
(both genders), co-ed – jai
natural set of X (collective) – de
X-ese, X-ian, from X, resident of X – cle
that which is not an X, non-X – co
X-ken, X-ie, (endearing affix) – noi
any class affixes
(small size/scope) – zi
(big size/scope) – be
(small time frame) – di
(long time frame) – su
(low intensity) – na
(high intensity) – vi
(honorable) – jo
(pejorative, dishonorable) – pu
mixed up, bad, dys-X – fwe
person associated with X (a>n.d) – do
not, non-X, un-X – ne
un-X (opposite, cf Esp mal-) – li
manner, in the manner of; X-ly (v,n>adv) – mu
X-like, having the quality of X, X-ful (v,n>adj)– cwe 
unlike X, not having the quality of X, X-less (v,n>adj) – spu
X-th, scale of X-ness – mwe
X-ward (eg eastward, inward , etc) – kre
specifier particles
thing/person named X –  cai
this – kri
that – kwa
that over there – kyu
a certain – da
the – te
any/representative – ki
any, a (existential quantifier: there is X such that) – foi ( = ja bu)
with adhoc name X – tci
which – fu
no more than, at most – nwe
no less than, at least – wi
no more and no less than, exactly, exclusively – zu
this one (thing) – kri ta
that one (thing) – ta
what (question) – vo ta
what (relative pronoun) – du ta
nothing – bu ta
something – da ta
anything – foi ta
everything – vli ta
this one (person) – kri no
that one (person) – no
who (question) – vo no
who (relative pronoun) – du no
no one – bu no
someone – da no
anyone – foi no
everyone – vli no
this much – kri kcu
that much, that many – kcu
how much, how many – vo kcu
that kind, such – klao
what kind (question) – vo klao
what kind (relative pronoun) – du klao
no kind of – bu klao
a lot of, much, many – loi
too much/many – stu
none, no, not any – bu ( = ja foi)
plural – ni
little, few, a little of – nai
a few – bwi
some of X, part of X (not all of X) – glo
the whole of, all of – pai
no matter which, whichever – cli
more of (amount) – myo
most of (amount) – mwa
more (quantity, than before) – cti
all, each, every – vli
each – gya vli
every (together) – zwa vli
distinct set of X (per each pairing: to each Y) – zwe
(ordinal: first, second, etc) [d>v] – dje
zero – gru
one – fwa
two – kye
three – clo
four – vyu
five – zwi
six – mla
seven – syo
eight – blu
nine – pwi
ten – nya
hundred – kamo
thousand – joke
million – fine
I – le
we (me & you) – lai
we (me & them, not you) – lao
you (sg) – si
you.pl & not them – soi
you & them – sya
he/she – va
it (non-human) – fe
one (generic person) – mo
they (human/personalized) – vye
they (non-human) – fai
(refers to clause subject) – bi
(refers to the sentence subject) – ku
(refers to agent causing the state) – zo
each other – zye
(refers to focus of the agent causing the state) – go
(resumptive pronoun) – lu
(entity fitting semantic range of the role wrt the verb) – zlo
the other X (party 2) – nyu
(environment pronoun) – tsu
the one (who/that) – ye
adverbial particles
already, yet – bwe
still, anymore – gro
not (global), it’s not true that – ja
yes, indeed, do – se
again – fra
impossible that X – fli
improbable that X – pwe
maybe, possibly, might – tya
probably – jlo
definitely, certainly – cwa
please (command) – swa
(standard command) – zyo
most (intensity) – bwa
more (intensity) – byo
like, equally, as – bo
very – fwi
pretty (ziemlich) – poi
individually, each – gya
together, in a single action – zwa
same (for all the subject entities), shared – dya
unique per each subject entity; separate – bro
now (this time) – kri kwe
then (that time) – kwe
when (question) – vo kwe
when (relative pronoun) – du kwe
never – bu kwe
sometime – da kwe
any time – foi kwe
always, every time – vli kwe, ya kwe
here – kri kya
there – kya
where (question) – vo kya
where (relative pronoun) – du kya
nowhere – bu kya
somewhere – da kya
anywhere – foi kya
everywhere – vli kya, ya kya
this way – kri kli
that way – kli
how (question) – vo kli
how (relative pronoun) – du kli
no way – bu kli
every way – vli kli, ya kli
this reason – kri koi
that reason – koi
why (question) – vo koi
why (relative pronoun) – du koi
no reason – bu koi
every reason – ya koi
auxiliary verbs
can, have ability to – mluti
can, may (permission) – slago
must, have to, need (obligation) – mavi
need (physical) – koce
not (verb particle; local negation) – me
want – lije
would like, prefer to – fwelu
should – wecu
other independent particles
that (complementizer: elided agent subject) – lo
to V (verb), that (complementizer: elided patient subject or no elision) – mi
that (complementizer, ‘one’ implied) – pe
and (between clauses) – fyu
and, also (within phrases) – cla
but – tco
or (between clauses) – bre
or (within phrases) – djo
just, only, merely (expect more) – fre
too, excessive (intensity) – ju
incidentally (parenthetical) – ca
# of times (once, twice, etc) – mao
again – vai
even – bri
in contrast, however – qe
such as, for example – bli
(yes/no question word, expecting yes) – sla
(yes/no question word, with no expectation of yes or no) – vao
(yes/no question word, expecting no) – zwai
(converts “that X”-words into question words) – vo  

(non-restrictive modifier follows) – zoi
(turns that-words into relative (?) pronouns) – du
(emphatic) – tcu
do so/too/that (absolute reference) – tu
do so/too/that (relative reference) – wa
to do one’s characteristic action – jlai
causijunctions (VP follows)
allowing – zive
attempting to – jugi
implies (only if: logical implication) – suna
in order to, so that, with intent to, plan to – vajo
(inverts causijunction) – tce
but regardless, but X anyway – muta
so, and, then, now – pao
though, however – ceba
consequently, which is the reason that, for that reason, that is why (abstract causation) – senu
with possible result of – kole
with result of (physical causation) – cike
(causijunction: other predicate) – mli
whether or not X, no matter X – spa
even though – nagi
if (logical implication) – lofu
by (action to accomplish something) – cuci
causing, making (concrete causation) – fa
(patient) – i
(focus) – u
(modify same as last “case phrase”) – e
(first adjunct of a verb with no focus) – a
(modify inside a noun phrase) – o
to (indirect object, recipient) – ci
verbal roles in nominal constructions
(actor performing action X in nominal construction), of, by – pyo
(actor causing patient state X in nominal construction), by – wai 
(patient of action X in nominal construction), of – zle 
(patient with result state X in nominal construction), of – cto
(focus in nominal construction), of – flu
(indirect object in nominal construction), to – blo
prepositions (NP follows)
according to, judged by – sai
after – sle
against – bai
ago – byu
along, via – mlu
among – cpi
around (outside of) – ste
around (to each; inside) – zla
around, about (scattered: ex = around the room) – kai
as (general) – mwi
as (object complement) – dyo
at (time, location) – fo
away (from), out – gli
back – swai
because of (“for” in “for X reason”) – sye
before – mle
behind – pro
between – jwa
beyond – goi
by (demoted subject) – yu
causing X (state resulting from given action) – bya
down – zya
except – bla
for, to, with regard to, concerning – bra
for (beneficiary) – gi
for (do the work for: “pack for”) – tca
for (in exchange for) – doi
for (time) – kyo
forward – zli
from – gwe
from X (action causing given state) – dju
in, inside (fully inside) – boi
in (partial: sticking into, out of) – po
in front of – klo
in spite of, despite – flao
in (language, words), using (communication format) – jli
in (time: future) – vlo 
instead of – dwai
(literal quote) – flo
of (amount) – jlu
of (inalienable) – ba
of (alienable possessor) – fi
of (temporary possessor) – ka
of (vague dominance over) – pi
of (in equal relation to) – la
of (vaguely dominated by) – za
of (have X as social relation given by “possessor”) – zlu 
off (not on the surface of) – zyu
on bottom of – blao
on top of – pwai
on (covering) – qo
on (the surface of) – dwe
out, outside – tsa
over, above – kao
than, as, compared to – vyo
through – sta
to (indirect object) – ci
to (destination) – cte
to (observer: ex = “clear to me”) – mya
towards, at (in the sense of towards) – glu
together with – pye
under, below, beneath – dyao
under (supporting), with X on it – nwi
until – cao
up – so
while, during, as – gla
with, using, by (transportation) – nwa
with (accompaniment) – ble
with (instrument), using, by (sense) – nye
with, having (temporary possession) – bao
with, having (inalienable possession) – mlo
with, having (alienable possession) – slu
with (together with) – pye
without – dja
alas; (sorrow, pity, regret) - nikco

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copyright 2005 by Garrett Jones