Minyeva particles and affixes

Minyeva is a systematic constructed language. Go to the front page to find out more.

v0.1.1 – 10/28/06
278 total words
v – verbal affix
as – aspect/tense
n – nounal affix
adj – adjectival affix
a – any class affix
d – specifier particle
p – pronoun
c – causijunction/case
b – adverbial particle
s – substitution
o – other independent particle
x – auxiliary verb
pp – preposition
ba (pp) [balo] – of (inalienable possessor)
bai (pp) – against
bao (pp) [baco] – with, having (temporary possession)
be (a) [bema] – (big size/scope)
bi (p) – (refers to clause subject)
bla (pp) – except
blao (pp) – on bottom of. ant = pwai
ble (pp) – with (accompaniment)
bli (o) – such as, for example
blo (pp) – to, (indirect object in nominal construction)
blu (d) – eight (8)
bo (b) – like, equally, as
boi (pp) [boci] – in, inside (fully inside)
bra (pp) – for, with regard to.
bre (o) – or (between clauses)
bri (b) – even
bro (pp) – unique per each subject entity; separate
bu (d) – none, no, not any
bwa (b) – most (intensity)
bwe (b) – already, yet
bwi (d) – a few
bya (pp) – causing X (state resulting from given action)
byo (b) – more (intensity)
byu (pp) – ago
ca (o) – incidentally (remarking/ parenthetical marker)
cai (d) – thing/person named X
cao (pp) – until, up to
ce (as) [ceqa] – (subjunctive, hypothetical)
ci (c) – to (indirect object, recipient)
cla (o) – and, also (within phrases)
cle (n) – from X, X-ese, X-ian, resident of X
cli (d) – no matter which, whichever
clo (d) – three (3)
co (n) – that which is not an X, non-X
coi (v) – (focus participle of X)
cpe (as) – accidentally.
cpi (pp) [cpile] – among
cte (pp) – to (destination)
cti (d) – more (quantity, than before).
cto (pp) – of, (patient with result state X in nominal construction)
cu (v>n.d) [cuni]  – (focus of X)
cwa (b) [cwaki] – definitely, certainly
cwe (v,n>adj) – X-like, having the quality of X, X-ful
cyo (v>adj) – X-worthy, worthy of being the focus of X
da (d) – a certain
de (n.d) [deca] – natural set of X (collective)
di (a) [dile] – (small time frame)
dja (pp) – without
dje (d>v) – (ordinal: first, second, etc)
dji (as) – keep doing X, stay X
djo (o) – or (within phrases)
dju (pp) – from X (action causing given state)
do (a>n.d) – person associated with X
doi (pp) – for (in exchange for)
du (o) – (turns that-words into relative (?) pronouns)
dwa (as) – (attempt at: eg, bite at)
dwe (pp) – on (the surface of)
dwai (pp) – instead of.
dya (d) – same (for all the subject entities), shared
dyao (pp) – under, below, beneath. ant = kao
dyo (pp) – as (object complement)
fa (c) – causing, making (concrete causation)
fai (p) – they (non-human)
fe (p) – it (non-human)
fi (pp) [file] – of (alienable possessor)
flai (as) [flaji] – (professional activity)
flao (pp) – in spite of, despite
fle (as) [fleca] – (habitual action)
fli (b) [flice] – impossible that X
flo (pp) – (literal quote)
flu (pp) – of (focus in nominal construction)
fo (pp) – at (time, location)
foi (d) – any, a (existential quantifier: there is X such that)
fra (b) – again
fre (o) – just, only, merely (expect more)
fu (d) – which
fwa (d) – one (1)
fwe (a) – mixed up, bad, dys-X.
fwi (b) – very.
fyo (v) – more (self-change, intensity), X-en
fyu (p) – and (between clauses)
ga (v>n.d) [gavi] – doer of X (person)
gai (b) – (verb has no required dependents)
ge (v) – oneself, “u bi”
gi (c) – for (beneficiary)
gla (pp) – while, during, as.
gle (v>n) – doer of X (non-person)
gli (pp) – away from, out
glo (d) – some of X, part of X (not all of X)
glu (pp) – towards, at (in the sense of towards)
go (p) – (refers to focus of the agent causing the state)
goi (pp) – beyond
gre (as) – recently/soon (near in time)
gro (b) – still, anymore
gru (d) – zero (0)
gu (n>v) – (action associated with X)
gwa (as) – X-ed (past tense)
gwe (pp) – from
gwi (v>adj) – X-able, possible to become or do X
gya (b) – each, individually
ja (b) – not (global), it’s not true that.
jai (n) – (both genders), co-ed
jao (v) – (patient of X participle)
je (b) – (elides focus/patient)
ji (v>n.d) [jine] – (patient of action X)
jlai (v>n.d) – to do one’s characteristic action
jle (v>n.d) – non-person who causes change to state X
jli (pp) – in (language, words), using (communication format)
jlo (b) [jlovu] – probably
jlu (pp) – of (amount): esperanto ‘da’
jo (a) [jove] – (honorable)
joi (v>adj) – X-able (possible to be the patient of X)
ju (o) – too, excessive (intensity)
jwa (pp) – between.
ka (pp) [kavo] – of (temporary posession)
kai (pp) – around, about (scattered: ex = around the room)
kao (pp) – over, above. ant = dyao
kcu (d) – that much, that many
ke (as) – go back from X, undo X
ki (d) – any/representative
klao (d) – that kind, such
kli (b) – that way
klo (pp) – in front of. ant = pro
ko (as) [kode] – (perfective)
koi (b) – that reason
kre (a) – X-ward (eg eastward, inward, etc)
kri (d) – this
ku (p) – (refers to the sentence subject)
kwa (d) – that
kwe (p) – then (that time).
kya (p) – there.
kye (d) – two (2)
kyo (pp) – for (time)
kyu (d) – that over there
la (pp) [lami] – of (in equal relation to)
lai (p) – we (me & you)
lao (p) – we (me & them, not you)
le (p) – I
li (a) [like] – un-X (opposite, cf Esp mal-)
lo (o) – that (complementizer: elided agent subject)
loi (d) [loce] – a lot of, much, many
lu (p) – (resumptive pronoun)
ma (as) – (iterative)
mai (as) – pause X, momentarily stop X
mao (o) – # of times (once, twice, etc.)
me (b) – not (verb particle; local negation)
mi (o) – to V (verb), that (complementizer: elided patient subject or no elision)
mla (d) – six (6)
mle (pp) – before. ant = sle
mli (c) – (causijunction: other predicate)
mlo (p) [mlone] – with, having (inalienable)
mlu (pp) – along, via
mo (p) – one (generic person).
moi (as) – discontinue/cancel/cease to X
mu (v,n>adv) – manner, in the manner of; X-ly
mwa (d) – most of (amount)
mwe (adj>n) – X-th, scale of X-ness
mwi (pp) – as (general)
mya (pp) – to (observer: ex = “clear to me”)
myo (d) – more of (amount)
na (a) [naki] – (low intensity)
nai (d) [nasi] – little, few, a little of (amount)
ne (a) – not, un-X, non-X
ni (a) [nive] – plural
no (d) – that one (person)
noi (n) – X-ken, X-ie (endearing suffix)
nu (as) – go back to X, redo X
nwa (pp) – using, with, by (transportation)
nwe (d) – no more than, at most
nwi (pp) – under (supporting), with X on it
nya (d) – ten (10)
nye (pp) – with (instrument), using, by (sense)
nyo (n.d) – X-ess (female)
nyu (p) – the other X (party 2)
pa (as) – change from X
pai (d) – the whole of, all of
pao (b) – so, and (story continuation), then, now.
pe (o) – that (complementizer, ‘one’ implied)
pi (pp) [pive] – of (vague dominance over)
po (d) [poje] – in (partial: sticking into, out of)
poi (b) – pretty (ziemlich)
pra (as) – long ago/in a long time (far in time)
pro (pp) – behind. ant = klo
pu (a) [puda] – (pejorative, dishonorable)
pwai (pp) – on top of. ant = blao
pwe (b) [pwela] – improbable that X
pwi (d) – nine (9)
pya (as) – have X (perfect tense)
pye (pp) – together with
pyo (pp) – of (actor performing action X in nominal construction), by
qe (o) – in contrast, however
qa (n.d>n.m) – (discrete noun -> mass noun)
qo (pp) [qome] – on (covering).
qu (b) – used to, previously
sa (v) – make self X, “i bi”
sai (pp) – according to, judged by
se (b) – yes, indeed, do (emphatic)
si (p) – you (sg)
sla (b) – (yes/no question word, expecting yes)
sle (pp) – after. ant = mle
slo (v>adj) – X-able, possible to be focus of X
slu (pp) [sluci] – with, having (alienable)
so (pp) [sove] – up. ant = zya
soi (p) – you.pl & not them
spa (cj) – whether or not X, no matter X
spu (v,n>adj) – unlike X, not having the quality of X, X-less
sta (pp) – through
ste (pp) – around (outside of)
sti (b) – (passive: promote focus, demote agent)
stu (d) – too much/many
su (a) [supa] – (long time frame)
swa (b) – please (command)
swai (pp) – back
swe (as) – now (present tense)
swi (v>n) – (abstract concept of)
sya (p) – you & them
sye (pp) – because of (“for” in “for X reason”)
syo (d) – seven (7)
ta (d) – that one (thing)
tao (v>n.d) – (patient with result state X)
tca (pp) – for (do the work for: “pack for”)
tcai (n) – X as a group
tce (c) – (inverts causijunction)
tci (d) – with adhoc name X
tco (o) – but
tcu (o) – (emphatic)
te (d) – the
ti (v>n.d) [time] – discrete action of X, X-tion, event of
to (as) – change to, obtain quality, -ify, become
toi (v>n.d) – (indirect object of X)
tsa (pp) [tsaci] – out, outside
tsu (p) – (environment pronoun)
tu (o) – (pro-verb) do so/too/that (absolute reference)
twa (n.m>n.d) – (mass noun -> discrete noun)
twe (v>adj) – likely to X, X-ing (eg, forgiving)
twi (as) – will (future tense)
tya (b) [tyaji] – possibly, maybe, right
va (p) – he/she
vai (b) – again
vao (b) – (yes/no question word, with no expectation of yes or no)
ve (v) – (active participle of X, causing change to state X)
vi (a) [vino] – (high intensity)
vla (as) – (imperfective aspect), -ing
vle (n.d) – (male)
vli (d) [vlige] – all, each, every
vlo (pp) – in (time: future)
vo (o) – (converts “that X”-words into question words)
voi (v) – (passive: promote patient, demote agent)
vu (v>n.d) – person who causes change to state X
vye (p) – they (human/personalized)
vyo (pp) – than, as, compared to
vyu (d) – four (4)
wa (o) – (pro-verb) do so/too/that (relative reference)
wai (pp) – by (actor causing patient state X in nominal construction)
wi (d) – no less than, at least
ye (p) – the one (who/that)
yo (v) – (active participle of X, subject)
yu (pp) – by (demoted subject)
za (pp) [zalo] – of (vaguely dominated by)
zai (v) – less (self-change, intensity), de-X-en
ze (v>n.m) [zequ] – X-ing (gerund), the activity, X-ness (adjectives), state of being X
zi (a) [zite] – (small size/scope)
zla (pp) [zlave] – around (to each; inside)
zle (pp) – of (patient of action X in nominal construction)
zli (pp) – forward
zlo (p) – (entity fitting semantic range of the role wrt the verb)
zlu (pp) [zluma] – (have X as social relation given by "possessor")
zo (p) – (refers to agent causing the state)
zoi (d) – (non-restrictive modifier follows)
zu (d) – no more and no less than, exactly, exclusively
zwa (b) – together, in a single action
zwai (b) – (yes/no question word, expecting no)
zwe (d) – distinct set of X (per each pairing: to each Y)
zwi (d) – five (5)
zya (pp) [zyavo] – down. ant = so
zye (p) – each other
zyo (b) – (standard command)
zyu (pp) – off (not on the surface of)

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copyright 2005 by Garrett Jones