Minyeva : Phonology and Phonotactics

last modified: 5/13/02

1. Short description

Consonants: The following consonants are the same as in english: p, b, t, d, k, g; f, v, s, z; l, m, n; w,y,r. The letter 'c' is pronounced 'sh', 'j' is pronounced 'zh' (like in leisure), and 'q' like 'ng' (in thing).

Vowels: The five classic spanish vowels are used in Minyeva: a, e, i, o, and u. They are pronounced "ahh" (open), "ehh", "eee", "ohh", "ooo" (like in the american dot, set, meet, note, root). The 'e' has a slight ey sound (like in the word 'hey'), but the sound shouldn't be carried off to the 'ee' sound like many speakers do (so, not 'hey-ee'). The vowels are always pronounced the same way everywhere (or as is physically possible).

No capitalization is used in Minyeva.

2. Consonant chart & Samba ASCII IPA equivalents:

 

 

bi-labial

labiodental

alveolar

postalveolar

palatal

velar

stop p - /p/    t - /t/      k - /k/
voiced stop b - /b/    d - /d/      g - /g/
fricative    f - /f/ s - /s/ c - /S/     
voiced
fricative
   v - /v/ z - /z/ j - /Z/     
nasal m - /m/    n - /n/      q - /N/
trill     r - /r/      
lateral approximate       L - /l/        
approximate w - /w/       y - /j/  

3. vowel chart & Samba ASCII IPA equivalents:

  front/
open
central/
open
back/ round
high i - /i/   u - /u/
mid e - /E/   o - /o/
low   a - /a/  

4. Phonotactics: Word Formation Constraints

* possible root word types:

c- (function words, affixes)
c-- (function words, affixes)
cc- (function words, affixes)
cc-- (function words, affixes)
c-c- (common lexical concepts)
c-cc- (semi-common lexical concepts)
cc-c- (semi-common lexical concepts)
cc-cc- (uncommon lexical concepts)

* possible initial letters (c):

p,b,t,d,k,g; f,v,s,z,c,j; l,m,n,q; w,y,r

* possible medial letters (c):

p,b,t,d,k,g; f,v,s,z,c,j; l,m,n,q

* possible initial consonant clusters (cc):

ps,pc; pl; pw,py,pr
bz,bj; bl; bw,by,br
ts,tc; tw,ty,tr
dz,dj; dw,dy,dr
ks,kc; kl; kw,ky,kr
gz,gj; gl; gw,gy,gr

fl; fw,fy,fr
vl; vw,vy,vr
sp,st,sk; sl,sm,sn; sw,sy
zl; zw,zy
cp,ct,ck; cl,cm,cn; cw,cy
jl; jw,jy

ml; mw,my,mr
nw,ny
qw,qy

* possible medial consonant clusters(cc):

pt,pk; pf,ps,pc; pl,pm; pw,py,pr
bd
,bg; bv,bz,bj; bl,bm; bw,by,br

tf,ts,tc; tl,tn; tw,ty,tr
dv
,dz,dj; dl,dn; dw,dy,dr

kf,ks,kc; kl,kq; kw,ky,kr
gv
,gz,gj; gl,gq; gw,gy,gr

fp,ft,fk; fs,fc; fl,fm,fn,fq; fw,fy,fr
vb
,vd,vg; vz,vj; vl,vm,vn,vq; vw,vy,vr

sp,st,sk; sf; sl,sm,sn; sw,sy
zb
,zd,zg; zv; zl,zm,zn; zw,zy

cp,ct,ck; cf; cl,cm,cn; cw,cy
jb
,jd,jg; jv; jl,jm,jn; zw,zy

mp,mb; mf,mv; ml; mw,my,mr
nt
,nd; ns,nz,nc,nj; nl; nw,ny
qk
,qg; ql; qw,qy

* possible vowel pairings (-v-v):

a-i, e-a, i-e, o-e, u-a 
a-o, e-u, i-o, o-u, u-i

* possible diphthongs (vv):

ai, ao, oi

* impossible cv combinations:

yi, wu, wo

* example allowed words:

tsavi (cc-c-, ts-, a-i, -v-)
nesa
(c-c-, n-, e-a, -s-)
guzla
(c-cc-, g-, u-a, -zl-)

* example disallowed words:

kwota (wo disallowed; o-a disallowed)
sara
(-r- disallowed; a-a disallowed)
tlampi
(tl- disallowed)
cfui
(cf- disallowed; not a valid word type)

 

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copyright 2004 by Garrett Jones